Infection and Immunity (INIM)


The Infection and Immunity group (INIM) is a research group specialized in the study of infectious diseases, focusing its main activity on the field of HIV immunopathogenesis. HIV is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that affects the normal function of the immune system. The group leaders are Dr. Joaquim Peraire and Dr. Anna Rull, who lead a mixed group made up of clinical and basic researchers.

  • Dra. Anna Rull Aixa

  • Dr. Joaquim Peraire Forner

  • Presentation
  • Research lines
  • Group members
  • Projects
  • Transfer
  • Publications
  • Dissemination
  • Contact

The group, which was created in 1995 by Professor Francesc Vidal, Dr. Joaquim Peraire and Dr. Consuelo Viladés, develops its activity at the Joan XXIII University Hospital (HJ23) in Tarragona and at the Rovira i Virgili University (URV), being the Foundation Institute of Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV) the manager of its main activity. In 2022, INIM joined the AIDS Research Network (RETIC-RIS) (RD16/0025/0006) of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) (CB21/13/0020), and currently, it is part of the CIBERINFEC national network. INIM is recognized as a group of excellence by the Agency for the Management of University and Research Grants (AGAUR) of the Generalitat de Catalunya.

The main activity of the group is focused on clinical and translational research being the applicability of omic sciences concerning the field of HIV/AIDS, and more recently the SARS-CoV-2 infection, the main goal during the last years. The group understands quality biomedical and health research as a cooperative activity collaborating with different national and international institutions. On the other hand, INIM has extensive experience in the training of undergraduate students, postgraduate students, doctoral theses and postdoctoral training. In addition, the members of the group also provide teaching and training activities in the academic field.

The research lines of the INIM group are within the field of infectious diseases, most of them focusing on HIV:

  • Global health, emerging and re-emerging infections.
    • COVID-19 infection: epidemiology and clinic, immunopathogenesis and mitochondrial damage.
  • HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections.
    1. Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection.
    2. Functional recovery: immunometabolic studies in elite controllers.
    3. Immunological discordant: molecular mechanisms.
    4. Aging and comorbidities.
    5. Epidemiological and clinical studies.
    6. New antiretroviral treatment strategies: efficacy and safety. Toxicity studies.
  • Other programs:
    1. Nosocomial infection.
    2. Antimicrobial resistance.
    3. Bacteremia and endocarditis.

  • Title: A MULTI-OMIC SUBSTUDY FOR THE CLINICAL TRIAL “dtg/3tc vs. bic/ftc/taf maintenance therapy in people living with HIV: an open-label randomized clinical trial.

    Funding entity: Fundación SEIMC-GeSIDA.

    Duration: 2021-2025

    Principal Investigator:  Anna Rull Aixa / Francesc Vidal Marsal / Joaquim Peraire Forner

  • Title:  Role of the gut microbiome in lipid and lipoprotein function: Immune recovery and HIV disease progression (LipoHIV). PI20/00326

    Funding entity: Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII).

    Duration: 2022-2024

    Principal Investigator:  Anna Rull Aixa

  • Title:  Omics profile associated with HIV disease progression: looking for new biomarkers and for new therapeutic targets to achieve HIV functional cure.

    Funding entity: Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria. Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII).

    Duration: 2020-2023

    Principal Investigator:  Francesc Vidal Marsal

    Collaboration. co-IP: Joaquim Peraire Forner.

  • Title:  2019/IISPV/05, Evaluation of sTWEAK/Fn14/CD163 axis as potential predictive biomarkers of immunological recovery and disease progression in HIV-infected patients under virological suppression.

    Funding entity:  Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV).

    Duration: 2020-2021

    Principal Investigator:  Anna Rull Aixa

  • Title:  Circulating and cellular prognostic biomarkers for COVID19 progression in patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection using multi omic science.

    Funding entity:  Generalitat de Catalunya

    Duration: 2020

    Principal Investigator:  Francesc Vidal Marsal

  • Title:  EUIN2017-89297, Role of the gut microbiome in lipoprotein function and stability: immune recovery and HIV disease progression

    Funding entity:  Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad.

    Duration: 2018-2019

    Principal Investigator: Anna Rull Aixa

    Clinical guide

  • (Patent)

    Title: Methods for the prognosis of HIV-Infected subjects

    Reference: EP18382669.2 – PCT/EP2019/074906

    Inventors: Rodriguez Gallego, Esther; Rull Aixa, Anna; Peraire Forner, Joaquim; Viladés Laborda, Consuelo; Vidal Marsal, Francesc; Alba Elvira, Veronica; Ruiz-Mateos Carmona, Eziquiel; López Cortés, Luis Fernando; Tarancón Díez, Laura.

    Registration date: 2019

  • Mensa J, et al (Vidal F). Guia de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2022. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2022. ISBN: 978-84-88825-31-5.

  • Mensa J, et al (Vidal F). Guia de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2021. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2021. ISBN: 978-84-88825-33-9.

  • Mallolas J, et al (Vidal F). Guia Práctica del SIDA. Clínica, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento, 16ª Ed. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2021. ISBN: 978-84-88825-30-8.

  • Mensa J, et al (Vidal F). Guia de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2020. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2020. ISBN: 978-84-88825-29-2.

  • Panel de expertos de GeSIDA y Plan Nacional del SIDA: Martinez E, Arribas JR, Polo R, Gonzalez J, Palacios R, Berenguer J, Bernal E, Blanco JR, Curran A, de Mendoza C, Domingo P, Dueñas C, Estrada V, Galindo MJ, González-Cordón A, Gutiérrez F, Iribarren JA, Imaz A, Mariño A, Miralles C, Miró JM, Montes ML, Moreno S, Paredes R, Perez-Molina JA, Pérez-Elias MJ, Pulido F, Ribera E, Rivero A, Rubio R, Ryan P, Sanchez-Conde M, Sanz J, Sanz J, Serrano S, Suarez I, Torralba M, Tuset M, Velasco I, Viciana P, Vidal F, von Vichmann M. Documento de consenso de GeSIDA / Plan Nacional del Sida respecto al tratamiento antiretroviral en adultos infectados por el VIH. Ministerio de Sanidad, Gobierno de España, 2020.

  • Mensa J; Soriano A; García-Sánchez JE; Letang E; López-Suñé E; Marco F, Llinares P. Guía de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2019. (Spain): Antares Editorial, 2019. ISBN-13: 9788488825292.

  • Mensa J, et al (Vidal F). Guia de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2019. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2019. ISBN: 978-84-88825-26-1.

  • Clotet B, et al (Vidal F). Guia Práctica del SIDA. Clínica, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento, 15ª Ed. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2019. ISBN: 978-84-88825-28-5.

  • Panel de expertos de GeSIDA y Plan Nacional del SIDA: Perez-Molina JA, Polo R, Martinez E, Gonzalez J, Lozano F, Aguirrebengoa K, Arribas JR, Berenguer J, Blanco JR, Boix V, Curran A, Domingo P, Dueñas C, Estrada V, Galindo MJ, Garcia F, Gutiérrez F, Iribarren JA, Imaz A, Knobel H, Llibre JM, Losa JE, Mariño A, Miralles C, Miró JM, Montes ML, Moreno S, Pérez-Elias MJ, Pulido F, Ribera E, Rivero A, Rubio R, Ryan P, Sanchez-Conde M, Sanz J, Sanz J, Serrano S, de la Torre J, Tuset M, Vidal F, von Vichmann M. Documento de consenso de GeSIDA / Plan Nacional del Sida respecto al tratamiento antirretroviral en adultos infectados por el VIH. Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, Gobierno de España, 2019.

  • Mensa J; Gatell JM; García-Sánchez JE; Letang E; López-Suñé E; Marco F. Guía de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2018. (Spain): Antares Editorial, 2018. ISSN-e 2255-0569.

  • Mensa J, et al (Vidal F). Guía de Terapéutica Antimicrobiana 2018. Editorial Antares, Barcelona 2018. ISBN: 978-84-88825-24-7.

    Circulating pyruvate is a potent prognostic marker for critical COVID-19 outcomes

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré V, Reverté L, Peraire J, Madeira A, Maymó-Masip E, López-Dupla M, Gutierrez-Valencia A, Ruiz-Mateos E, Buzón MJ, Jorba R, Vendrell J, Auguet T, Olona M, Vidal F, Rull A, Fernández-Veledo S.
    Front Immunol. 2022;13:912579.
    PMID: 36189213.

    DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.912579

    Lipoprotein Profile in Immunological Non-Responders PLHIV after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    Masip J, Jorba R, López-Dupla M, Domingo P, Pacheco YM, García-Pardo G, Martínez E, Viladés C, Veloso S, Alba V, Olona M, Vidal F, Gómez-Bertomeu F, Peraire J, Rull A.
    Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(15):8071.
    PMID: 35897644.

    DOI: 10.3390/ijms23158071

    Elevated α-Ketoglutaric Acid Concentrations and a Lipid-Balanced Signature Are the Key Factors in Long-Term HIV Control

    Masip J, Rallón N, Yeregui E, Olona M, Resino S, Benito JM, Viladés C, García-Pardo G, Alcamí J, Ruiz-Mateos E, Gómez-Bertomeu F, Vargas M, Navarro M, Oteo JA, Pineda JA, Martí A, Alba V, Vidal F, Peraire J, Rull A.
    Front Immunol. 2022;13:822272.
    PMID: 35514981.

    DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.822272

    Fetuin-A, inter-α-trypsin inhibitor, glutamic acid and ChoE (18:0) are key biomarkers in a panel distinguishing mild from critical coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes

    Reverté L, Yeregui E, Olona M, Gutiérrez-Valencia A, Buzón MJ, Martí A, Gómez-Bertomeu F, Auguet T, López-Cortés LF, Burgos J, Benavent-Bofill C, Boqué C, García-Pardo G, Ruiz-Mateos E, Mestre MT, Vidal F, Viladés C, Peraire J, Rull A; COVIDOMICS Study Group.
    Clin Transl Med. 2022;12(1):e704.
    PMID: 35075803. PMCID: PMC8787095

    DOI: 10.1002/ctm2.704

    Functional impairment of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells precedes aborted spontaneous control of viremia

    Collins DR, Urbach JM, Racenet ZJ, Arshad U, Power KA, Newman RM, Mylvaganam GH, Ly NL, Lian X, Rull A, Rassadkina Y, Yanez AG, Peluso MJ, Deeks SG, Vidal F, Lichterfeld M, Yu XG, Gaiha GD, Allen TM, Walker BD. Functional impairment of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells precedes aborted spontaneous control of viremia. Immunity. 2021 Oct 12;54(10):2372-2384.e7. Epub 2021 Sep 7. PMID: 34496223; PMCID: PMC8516715

    DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.08.007

    Early antiretroviral therapy initiation effect on metabolic profile in vertically HIV-1-infected children

    Tarancón-Diez L, Rull A, Herrero P, Vazquez-Alejo E, Peraire J, Guillén S, Navarro-Gomez ML, Viladés C, Muñoz-Fernández MÁ, Vidal F.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021;76(11):2993-3001.
    PMID: 34463735.

    DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkab277

    Evolution of Serum Acute-Phase Glycoproteins Assessed by 1H-NMR in HIV Elite Controllers

    Malo AI, Peraire J, Ruiz-Mateos E, Masip J, Amigó N, Alcamí J, Moreno S, Girona J, García-Pardo G, Reig R, Vidal F, Castro A, Masana L, Rull A.
    Front Immunol. 2021;12:730691.
    PMID: 34650556. PMCID: PMC8505996

    DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.730691

    Differential miRNA plasma profiles associated with the spontaneous loss of HIV-1 control: miR-199a-3p and its potential role as a biomarker for quick screening of elite controllers

    Masip J, Gasca-Capote C, Jimenez-Leon MR, Peraire J, Perez-Gomez A, Alba V, Malo AI, Leal L, Martín CR, Rallón N, Viladés C, Olona M, Vidal F, Ruiz-Mateos E, Rull A; ECRIS integrated in the Spanish AIDS Research Network.
    Clin Transl Med. 2021;11(7):e474.
    PMID: 34323411. PMCID: PMC8255061

    DOI: 10.1002/ctm2.474

    Epigenome-wide association study of COVID-19 severity with respiratory failure

    Castro de Moura M, Davalos V, Planas-Serra L, Alvarez-Errico D, Arribas C, Ruiz M, Aguilera-Albesa S, Troya J, Valencia-Ramos J, Vélez-Santamaria V, Rodríguez-Palmero A, Villar-Garcia J, Horcajada JP, Albu S, Casasnovas C, Rull A, Reverte L, Dietl B, Dalmau D, Arranz MJ, Llucià-Carol L, Planas AM, Pérez-Tur J, Fernandez-Cadenas I, Villares P, Tenorio J, Colobran R, Martin-Nalda A, Soler-Palacin P, Vidal F, Pujol A, Esteller M.
    EBioMedicine. 2021;66:103339.
    PMID: 33867313. PMCID: PMC8047083

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103339

    High circulating SDF-1and MCP-1 levels and genetic variations in CXCL12, CCL2 and CCR5: Prognostic signature of immune recovery status in treated HIV-positive patients

    Yeregui E, Viladés C, Domingo P, Ceausu A, Pacheco YM, Veloso S, Inciarte A, Vidal-González J, Peraire M, Perpiñán C, Falcó V, Masip J, Alba V, Vargas M, Martí A, Reverté L, Mallolas J, Vidal F, Peraire J, Rull A.
    EBioMedicine. 2020;62:103077.
    PMID: 33166788. PMCID: PMC7653063

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103077

    Increased Frequencies of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Precede Immunodiscordance in HIV-Infected Subjects

    Rosado-Sánchez I, De Pablo-Bernal R, Rull A, Gónzalez J, Moreno S, Vinuesa D, Estrada V, Muñoz-Fernández MÁ, Vidal F, Leal M, Pacheco YM.
    Front Immunol. 2020;11:581307.
    PMID: 33240269. PMCID: PMC7677300

    DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.581307

    Comparison of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and the Five-Factor Score to Assess Survival in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A Study of 550 Patients From Spain (REVAS Registry)

    Solans-Laqué R, Rodriguez-Carballeira M, Rios-Blanco JJ, Fraile G, Sáez-Comet L, Martinez-Zapico A, Frutos B, Solanich X, Fonseca-Aizpuru E, Pasquau-Liaño F, Zamora M, Oristrell J, Fanlo P, Lopez-Dupla M, Abdilla M, García-Sánchez I, Sopeña B, Castillo MJ, Perales I, Callejas JL.
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020;72(7):1001-1010.
    PMID: 31033198.

    DOI: 10.1002/acr.23912

    The algorithm used for the interpretation of doravirine transmitted drug resistance strongly influences clinical practice and guideline recommendations

    Guerrero-Beltrán C, Martínez-Sanz J, Álvarez M, Olalla J, García-Álvarez M, Iribarren JA, Masiá M, Montero M, García-Bujalance S, Blanco JR, Rivero M, García-Fraile LJ, Espinosa N, Rodríguez C, Aguilera A, Vidal-Ampurdanes MC, Martínez M, Iborra A, Imaz A, Gómez-Sirvent JL, Peraire J, Portilla J, Caballero E, Alejos B, García F, Moreno S; CoRIS.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020;75(5):1294-1300.
    PMID: 32030406.

    DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkaa009

    Lipidomics Reveals Reduced Inflammatory Lipid Species and Storage Lipids after Switching from EFV/FTC/TDF to RPV/FTC/TDF: A Randomized Open-Label Trial

    Curran A, Rull A, Navarro J, Vidal-González J, Martin-Castillo M, Burgos J, Falcó V, Ribera E, Torrella A, Planas B, Peraire J, Crespo M.
    J Clin Med. 2020;9(5):1246.
    PMID: 32344934. PMCID: PMC7288166

    DOI: 10.3390/jcm9051246

    New signatures of poor CD4 cell recovery after suppressive antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals: involvement of miR-192, IL-6, sCD14 and miR-144

    Hernández-Walias F, Ruiz-de-León MJ, Rosado-Sánchez I, Vázquez E, Leal M, Moreno S, Vidal F, Blanco J, Pacheco YM, Vallejo A.
    Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):2937.
    PMID: 32076107.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60073-8

    CD300a inhibits CD16-mediated NK cell effector functions in HIV-1-infected patients

    Vitallé J, Terrén I, Orrantia A, Pérez-Garay R, Vidal F, Iribarren JA, Rodríguez C, Lirola AML, Bernal E, Zenarruzabeitia O, Borrego F.
    Cell MolImmunol. 2019;16(12):940-942.
    PMID: 31467415.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41423-019-0275-4

    IL-7/IL-7R gene variants impact circulating IL-7/IL-7R homeostasis and ART-associated immune recovery status

    Ceausu A, Rodríguez-Gallego E, Peraire J, López-Dupla M, Domingo P, Viladés C, Vidal-Gonzalez J, Peraire M, Perpiñán C, Pacheco YM, Veloso S, Alba V, Vargas M, Castellano AJ, Ruiz-Mateos E, Mallolas J, Vidal F, Rull A.
    Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):15722.

    PMID: 31673011. PMCID: PMC6823538

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-52025-8

    Drug-drug interactions when treating HIV-related metabolic disorders

    Gutierrez MDM, Mateo MG, Corbacho N, Vidal F, Domingo P.
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2019;15(10):787-802.
    PMID: 31512529.

    DOI: 10.1080/17425255.2019.1667334

    Losses to follow-up of HIV-infected people in the Spanish VACH cohort over the period between 2013 and 2014: The importance of sociodemographic factors

    Teira R, Espinosa N, Gutiérrez MM, Montero M, Martínez E, González F, Lozano de León F, Téllez F, Galindo MJ, Peraire J, Deig E, Muñoz-Sánchez P; para el Grupo de estudio VACH.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2019;37(6):361-366.
    PMID: 30514587.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.eimc.2018.09.008

    Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to integrase inhibitors in Spain: implications for clinical practice

    Alvarez M, Casas P, de Salazar A, Chueca N, Guerrero-Beltran C, Rodríguez C,Imaz A, Espinosa N, García-Bujalance S, Pérez-Elías MJ, García-Alvarez M, Iribarren JA, Santos J, Dalmau D, Aguilera A, Vinuesa D, Gutiérrez F, Piérola B, Molina JM, Peraire J, Portilla I, Gómez-Sirvent JL, Olalla J, Galera C, Blanco JR, Riera M, García-Fraile L, Navarro G, Curran A, Poveda E, García F; CoRIS.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(6):1693-1700.
    PMID: 30838386.

    DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkz067

    Does choice of antiretroviral drugs matter for inflammation?

    Gutierrez MDM, Mateo MG, Vidal F, Domingo P.
    Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019;12(5):389-396.
    PMID: 31017494.

    DOI: 10.1080/17512433.2019.1605902

    Glutaminolysis and lipoproteins are key factors in late immune recovery in successfully treated HIV-infected patients

    Rosado-Sánchez I, Rodríguez-Gallego E, Peraire J, Viladés C, Herrero P, Fanjul F, Gutiérrez F, Bernal E, Pelazas R, Leal M, Veloso S, López-Dupla M, Blanco J, Vidal F, Pacheco YM, Rull A.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 2019;133(8):997-1010.
    PMID: 30952809.

    DOI: 10.1042/CS20190111

    Evolving understanding of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease in people living with HIV and role of novel biomarkers A study of the Spanish CoRIS cohort,2004-2015

    Masiá M, Padilla S, García JA, García-Abellán J, Fernández M, Bernardino I, Montero M, Peraire J, Pernas B, Gutiérrez F.
    PLoS One. 2019;14(4):e0215507.
    PMID: 31026289.

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215507

    Immunometabolism is a key factor for the persistent spontaneous elite control of HIV-1 infection

    Tarancon-Diez L, Rodríguez-Gallego E, Rull A, Peraire J, Viladés C, Portilla I, Jimenez-Leon MR, Alba V, Herrero P, Leal M, Ruiz-Mateos E, Vidal F; ECRIS integrated in the Spanish AIDS Research Network.
    EBioMedicine. 2019;42:86-96.
    PMID: 30879922. PMCID: PMC6491381

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.03.004

    Discontinuation of dolutegravir, elvitegravir / cobicistat and raltegravir because of toxicity in a prospective cohort

    Llibre JM, Montoliu A, Miró JM, Domingo P, Riera M, Tiraboschi J, Curran A, Homar F, Ambrosioni J, Abdulghani N, Force L, Peraire J, Casabona J; PISCIS Cohort group.
    HIV Med. 2019;20(3):237-247.
    PMID: 30688007.

    DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12710

    Proteomic Profile Associated With Loss of Spontaneous Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Control

    Rodríguez-Gallego E, Tarancón-Diez L, García F, Del Romero J, Benito JM, Alba V, Herrero P, Rull A, Dominguez-Molina B, Martinez-Madrid O, Martin-Pena L, Pulido F, León A, Rodríguez C, Rallón N, Peraire J, Viladés C, Leal M, Vidal F, Ruiz-Mateos E; HIV-1 Elite Controllers Study Group (ECRIS), Spanish AIDS ResearchNetwork.
    J Infect Dis. 2019;219(6):867-876.
    PMID: 30312441.

    DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy599

    Durability of first-line antiretroviral regimens in the era of integrase inhibitors: a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in Spain, 2014-2015

    Jarrin I, Suarez-Garcia I, Moreno C, Tasias M, Del Romero J, Palacios R, Peraire J, Gorgolas M, Moreno S; Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS).
    AntivirTher. 2019;24(3):167-175.
    PMID: 30747107.

    DOI: 10.3851/IMP3297

Team Members

  • Group leader

    • Dra. Anna Rull Aixa
    • Dr. Joaquim Peraire Forner
  • Emeritus researcher

    • Francesc Vidal Marsal
  • Clinical researchers and doctors

    • Consuelo Viladés Laborda
    • Graciano García-Pardo
    • Montserrat Olona Cabasses
    • Frederic Gómez Bertomeu
    • Miguel López Dupla
    • Lluïsa Guillem Tió
    • Beatriz Villar Navas
  • Nurse

    • Montserrat Vargas Laguna
    • Anna Martí Gil
  • Basic researchers

    • Silvia Chafino Aixa
    • Alba Sánchez Morillo
  • Predoctoral researchers

    • Sonia Espineira Vazquez
    • Marina Flores Piña
  • Laboratory and support technician

    • Verónica Alba Elvira